In recent posts we have met the following differential equation, referred to as Poisson’s or Laplace’s equation in mathematics literature:

where is a gravitational potential and represents the presence of matter (where and antimatter (where ). This equation is the basis of Laplace’s monumental treatise in 5 volumes on Celestial Mechanics (1799-1825) and thus may qualify to be named God’s equation.

The equation is derived from two basic postulates:

- is a gravitational potential in the sense that the gravitational force field is given as . This means that the gravitational energy of an object only depends on its location (e.g. altitude) and not on the path to be brought there.
- The flow of the gravitational force field into any volume is equal to the amount of matter/antimatter in the volume.

Here 2. can be taken as a definition of matter/antimatter and thus only 1. is an actual real assumption. This assumption says that a gravitational force field is conservative and thus is free of friction.

One way to express this requirement is to say that gravitational energy can be transformed into kinetic energy without losses into heat energy. Assumption 1. is thus a necessary component of a mechanics which does not come to a stop by friction, and can thus be viewed as a necessary requirement of true celestial mechanics.

We thus come to the conclusion that the equation is a gift to humanity from the Creator, and as such has to accepted and used in as clever way as possible.

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## Richard T. Fowler

I am reading the Wikipedia article about Georges Lemaître, and it contains some timely information, some of which contains some rather rich irony within the present context.

The article reports that in 1927, at the time of the publication of Georges Lemaître’s work proposing a universe of growing radius,

“[. . .] Einstein,

while not taking exception to the mathematics of Lemaître’s theory, refused to accept the idea of an expanding universe; Lemaître recalled him commenting “Vos calculs sont corrects, mais votre physique est abominable”[8] (“Your math is correct, but your physics is abominable.”) The same year, Lemaître returned to MIT to present his doctoral thesis onThe gravitational field in a fluid sphere of uniform invariant density according to the theory of relativity.”Later, we read that Lemaitre’s proposal of an expanding universe …

“met skepticism from his fellow scientists at the time. Eddington found Lemaître’s notion unpleasant. Einstein found it suspect because he deemed it unjustifiable from a physical point of view.

[. . .]

“Einstein at first dismissed Friedmann, and then (privately) Lemaître, out of hand,

saying that not all mathematics lead to correct theories.After Hubble’s discovery was published, Einstein quickly and publicly endorsed Lemaître’s theory, helping both the theory and its proposer get fast recognition.”[All bold-face in the above is mine.]

RTF