The old blog post on Penguin Logic gets new material all the time. Some examples connecting to recent discussions:

- We assume that circulation is generated by a sharp trailing edge of a wing, and then obtain lift from circulation. We observe lift and conclude that lift comes from a sharp trailing edge and we therefore require wings to have sharp trailing edge. The fact that a real wing does not have sharp trailing edge is muffled.
- We assume that CO2 is a greenhouse gas with the effect of global warming of 1 C upon doubling. We observe global warming of 0.5 C and conclude that the warming comes from CO2.
- We assume that radiative heat exchange between two bodies is two-way carried by little photon particles with net transfer from warm to cold. We observe net transfer from warm to cold and conclude that radiative heat transfer is two-way carried by little photon particles.

Penguin logic is a strong tool with strong attraction and thus is widely used in science.

Penguin Logic is one of Aristotle’s non sequitur logical fallacies:

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## Tor

I have one more.

4. We assume that the world can be simulated computationally with finite precision. We observe that these computations gives approximate results. Therefore the world really is, fundamentally, finite precision.

Strong tool indeed.